常時英心:言葉の森から 1.0

約10年間,はてなダイアリーで英語表現の落穂拾いを行ってきました。現在はAmeba Blogに2.0を開設し,継続中です。こちらはしばらくアーカイブとして維持します。

ご指名質問 bid farewell to~(b.m.)


Spain's Catalonia bids farewell to bullfighting

Matadors have driven the killing sword into bulls for the last time in Spain’s powerful northeastern region of Catalonia in an emotive farewell fight before a regional ban on the country’s emblematic tradition takes effect.

Three of Spain’s top bullfighters, including No. 1 Jose Tomas, starred in the sold-out show at Barcelona’s 20,000-seat Monumental ring Sunday. Catalan bullfighter Serafin Marin closed the fight killing the last of six bulls to great applause.

Many fans then invaded the ring to grab handfuls of sand to keep as souvenirs.

The bullfighters were later carried shoulder high from the ring into the streets outside the bullring while the crowd chanted slogans in favor of freedom and against the prohibition. A brief bout of scuffling broke out as fans confronted about 20 animal welfare activists, but there were no reports of injuries or arrests.

The fight was also preceded by moments of tension as pro- and anti-bullfighting activists exchanged insults.

Catalonia’s Parliament banned bullfighting in July 2010 following a signature-collection campaign by animal rights activists. The ban does not take effect until Jan 1, but Sunday’s fight was the last scheduled this season.

Critics say the prohibition is less about animal welfare and more a snub to Spain by independence-minded Catalans.

Bullfighting’s popularity in Catalonia has plunged in recent decades and the Monumental was its last functioning ring, although the city once boasted three.

Hours before the fight, a small group of anti-bullfight activists gathered outside the arena, celebrating with sparkling wine.

“Obviously a lot of political parties have tried to politicize this, but we mustn’t forget that this popular proposal sprouted from a pure pro-animal rights standpoint aimed at eradicating animal cruelty,” campaigner Soraya Gaston said.

Others hoped the prohibition might only be temporary.

“It looks like this may be the last day (of bullfights in Catalonia). But the last word hasn’t been said yet,” fan Eduardo Edurna said. “I think we will have bullfighting back in Catalonia.”

The prohibition caused a furor and triggered a nationwide debate over the centuries-old spectacle that inspired such artists and writers as Goya, Picasso and Hemingway.

“Banning bullfighting in Catalonia is nothing more than an attack on liberty,” said Carlos Nunez, president of Spain’s Mesa del Toro pro-bullfighting umbrella group. “It’s the fruit of policies in Catalonia against bullfighting and all that is seen to represent Spain.”

Although mostly symbolic—the Monumental staged only some 15 fights a year—the prohibition sent bullfighting supporters frantically looking for ways to overturn the decision or at least make sure it doesn’t spread to other regions.

Spain’s leading conservative opposition Popular Party—tipped to win general elections in November—has appealed the ban before the Constitutional Court, while its Catalan branch is battling for a delay in the implementation of the ban.

Meanwhile, the Mesa del Toro is seeking 500,000 signatures in the hope it can persuade the Madrid national parliament to grant bullfighting cultural heritage status.
Animal rights activists, meanwhile, are triumphant.

“It’s like a crack has developed in the armor plating (of bullfighting). It’s a small crack but the protective shield might crumble altogether,” said Leonardo Anselmi, a key promoter of the Catalan prohibition.

Catalonia is the second of Spain’s 17 regions to ban bullfighting. The Canary Islands outlawed the practice in 1991 although it had never been a popular tradition there.

For the moment, however, there are no signs any other Spanish region will follow suit.

The practice was once immensely popular in Barcelona and other Catalan towns but its decline began with the end of the dictatorship of Francisco Franco in 1978 and the subsequent rise in Catalan nationalism and a rejection of things deemed Spanish.

But critics say the hypocrisy of banning bullfighting in the name of animal rights was shown up when months after the ban, Catalonia passed other legislation protecting the “correbous,” a typical Catalan town festival event in which flaming balls of wax or fireworks are attached to the horns of bulls which are then taunted and teased by rowdy crowds in bullrings or town squares.

Spain’s ancient fascination with bulls, and with using the animals as a test of bravery, is still very much a part of the national identity. Bullfights and related events, such as the annual San Fermin Pamplona bull-runs, make up a multimillion-dollar industry and draw many tourists.

But modern times and the economic crisis have nevertheless hit the tradition hard and surveys consistently show most Spaniards have no interest in bullfighting.

In an article headlined “The Fiesta is Ending,” leading newspaper El Pais highlighted that changing tastes and economic difficulties, particularly in small towns, have led to a 34 percent drop in the number of bull-related festival events from 2,622 to 1,724 between 2007 and 2010.

In January, Spain’s leading broadcaster said it would no longer show live bullfights in order to protect children from viewing violence.

Associated Press.


the country’semblematic tradition

more a snub to Spain


last functioning ring

これは,最後の闘牛競技場を指しています。闘牛場自体はまだ存在しますが,functioningなのはカタルーニャ州にあるthe Monumentalだけです。

the city once boasted three
このboastは「〈町・学校などが〉〈誇らしい物〉を持っている,〈物・事〉を誇りにする」という意味です(『ジーニアス英和辞典』同上)。またLDOCEにはif a place, object, or organization boasts something, it has something that is very goodとあり,例文にThe city boasts two excellent museums.が挙げられていました。したがって,「カタルーニャにはかつて三大闘牛場と呼ばれる程立派な闘牛場があった」と訳せるのではないでしょうか。



eradicating animal cruelty

eradicateには「・・・を根絶[撲滅]する,根こそぎにする(get rid of)」という意味です(『ジーニアス英和辞典』同上)。闘牛は牛を剣で刺したりするので,ここではそういった残酷な行為を止めさせることが目的であると記事では伝えています。

the last word hasn’t been said yet

動詞のstageには,「〈試合など〉を〈興行として〉行なう」という意味があります(『ジーニアス英和辞典』同上)。ここではthe Monumentalで1年間にたった15回しか闘牛は行われなかったと言っています。

tipped to win general elections
tipには[SVO to do]の形で,「〈競走者[馬]など〉が・・・すると予想する;〈人〉が〔・・・になると/・・・を得ると〕予想する〔as/for〕」という意味があります(『ジーニアス英和辞典』同上)。ここではPopular Party(国民党)の説明として「11月の総選挙で(与党である社会労働党に)勝つだろう」と書かれています。

the armor plating

armor plate,またはarmor-platingで「(軍艦などの)装甲板」という意味です(『ジーニアス英和辞典』同上)。これは闘牛場の中で,観客席と牛のいるフィールドを隔てているものだと考えられます。


follow suit

taunted and teased

rowdy crowds
そのまま訳すと「騒がしい群衆」です。crowdをLDOCEで引いてみると,a large group of people who have gathered together to do something, for example to watch something or protest about somethingとありました。今回の場合,この騒がしい群衆というのは動物愛護団体だと考えられます。

San Fermin Pamplona bull-runs

25日にカタルーニャで最後の興行が行われ,チケットも全て売り切れだったそうです。また,カタルーニャでの闘牛禁止法案は2012年の1月1日から施行されます。 (ゼミ生 b.m.)