常時英心:言葉の森から 1.0

約10年間,はてなダイアリーで英語表現の落穂拾いを行ってきました。現在はAmeba Blogに2.0を開設し,継続中です。こちらはしばらくアーカイブとして維持します。

plutocratic

 Damning statistic follows damning statistic on wealth inequality. The latest, from the House of Commons, is that by 2030 the richest 1% will own two-thirds of global wealth. The distribution of wealth – or rather the lack of it – may well prove to be the defining issue of our age. Such inequality has provoked revolution and revolt in the past. It will do so again, unless we fix it.
 It’s true that wealth inequality has always existed, no matter what the design of the society. Whether capitalist or communist, democratic, autocratic, or plutocratic, it will exist. Yet many of the extremes we see today are avoidable. They come as a result of an unlevel playing field, the direct consequence of certain government policies. (Skip the rest)

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/apr/12/wealth-inequality-reasons-richest-global-gap

 今回取り上げる語は、plutocratic /plùːtəkrǽtɪk/ です。名詞形の plutocracy を中心に以下で意味等を確認していきます。
 まず意味を Cambridge Dictionary でみると、“a system of government in which the richest people in a country rule or have power” とあり、LDOCE には “a ruling class or government that consists of rich people, or a country that is governed by rich people” と定義されていました。
 次に語源を確認すると OED に “Mid 17th century: from Greek ploutokratia, from ploutos ‘wealth’ + kratos ‘strength, authority’.” とあります。
 以上のことから、plutocratic は「金持ちの、富豪の」という意味だとわかりました。(OkaUchi)